Medical technology is one of the foundations for providing top-notch medical care. … Facilitating the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, innovations in medical technology also contribute to a self-determined life.
What is the Biotechnology?
Any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use.
It provides effective diagnostics, prevention, and treatment measures including the production of novel drugs and recombinants vaccines.
It is a toolbox filled with many different kinds of living cells and their components molecules and the many different ways to use them.
History of Biotechnology
Biotechnology is divided into these three stages.
First, we will discuss the ancient biotechnology
Ancient biotechnology can be referred to all development or discoveries that took place before the eighties these were all mainly to fulfill the basic need of humans such as food kettles. or shelters early hunting was a common practice for food their drinking and eating raw meat was ordinary.
it took time to understand the importance of fire clean water, definitely agriculture. Also with agriculture came the demonstration of animals and food like cheese, curd, and others possibly cheese was the first product of biotechnology as it was prepared by adding an enzyme called the net to our sole milk.
Classical Biotechnology we can define a zone now the development and discoveries in the vital receiver add.it exponential phases more than in 1926 gave the theory of the gene. which showed the world that chromosomes play an essential role in inheritance by using food files. it was Johnson’s point the term gene and describe it was as a carrier of lady tree.
Modern biotechnology after this second verb is some main some crucial discoveries were made. we said these days of modern by the Grassi in 1975 fuller and Milton’s came up with the concept of cytoplasmic hybridization they also produced first monoclonal antibodies. Modern biotechnologies involve making useful products from whole organisms or parts of organisms, such as molecules, cells, tissues, and organs. Recent developments in biotechnology include genetically modified plants and animals, cell therapies, and nanotechnology
Classification of biotechnology
Scope of by demands in our board has to ride a need to classify biotech base or on some common feature or their final purpose, there are some of there main area biotechnology using a color classification. So the first one is
Red biotechnology or we can say biopharma bring together all those biotechnology uses connected to medicine and veterinary product, red biotechnology includes producing vaccine and antibiotics developing new drugs molecules, diagnostics techniques, retentive therapy tricks, and the development of genetic engineering to human disease through genetic manipulation.
White biotechnology or industrial biotechnology is applied to industrial and other production processes. its technology plays special attention to designing low resources and consuming processes and products making them more energy-efficient and less Polluting traditional.
Green biotechnology is focused on agriculture, you can understand the name comes as green but because it is just related to agriculture, green biotechnology approaches and applications include creating new plant variants of agriculture in test producing biofertilizers and biopesticides this area of biotech is based on genetic modification.
Blue biotechnology is based on the exploitation of marine resources to create products and application of industrial interest taking into account that see present the greatest biodiversity there is a potentially a hub range of sector to benefit from the use of this kind of vitamin C.
What is medical biotechnology?
This is a branch of medicine that uses living cells and cell materials to research, and then produce pharmaceutical and disposing products
Some of the most recent uses of biological tech work in genetic testing, drug treatment, and artificial tissue growth.
With the many advancements in medical biotechnology, there are new concerns that Aries.
Application of medical biotechnology
Pharmacology is a branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical and physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism.
Use of pharmacology:
Insulin production: the human gene for insulin is placed into bacteria, is cultured and allowed to produce insulin which is collected, purified, and sold to diabetics worldwide.
Human growth hormone: Scientists produced human growth hormones by inserting DNA coding for human growth hormones into a plasmid that was implanted in Escherichia coli bacteria. this gene that was inserted into the plasmid was created by reverse transcription of the mRNA found in pituitary glands to complementary DNA.
Human blood clotting factor is isolated from blood are used to treat some hereditary bleeding disorders such as hemophilia. Human blood clotting factors were produced from donated blood that was inadequately screened for HIV.
In this biotechnology procedure, the human gene that codes for the blood-clotting protein is transferred to hamster cells grown in tissue culture.
Monoclonal antibodies(mAB or moAb)
Monoclonal antibodies are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. Remember, antibodies are specific proteins that target pathogens invading our body.
The advantage of this technology is used primarily to fight off cancer cells as these monoclonal antibodies can be “trained” to target markers that show up on cancer cells.
The mAbs will then destroy the cancer cell and go looking for more.
Gene therapy is the use of DNA as a pharmaceutical agent to treat disease. It derives its name from the idea that DNA can be used to supplement or alter genes within an individual’s cells as a therapy to treat disease.
The most common form of gene therapy involves using DNA that encodes a functional, therapeutic gene to replace a mutated gene.
A system cell is a cell that has the potential to become any cell type in the human body. stem cells provide new cells for the body as it grows, and replace specialized cells that are damaged or lost.
They have two unique properties that enable them to do this. they can divide over and over again to produce new cells. as they divide, they can change into the other types of cells that make up the body.
Types of stem cells
It is divided into 2 main forms:
Embryonic stem cells: used in research today come from unused embryos. these result from an in vitro fertilization procedure.
Adult stem cells: supply new cells as an organism grows and replace cells that get damaged.
Tissue engineering evolved from the field of biomaterials development and refers to the practice of combining scaffolds, cells, and biologically active molecules into functional tissues.
The goal of tissues engineering is to assemble functional constructs that restore, maintain, or improve damaged tissues or whole organs.
Scope of Biotechnology
Biotechnology is applied to various fields and many industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, medicine, agriculture, etc.. it has scope in both research and engineering.
Genetic engineering has helped in the production of therapeutic proteins as well as biological organisms.
Biotechnology has made major advances in molecular biology and industrial biotechnology.